Encyclopedia of Scalloped Tongue and Other Tongue Abnormalities

Around the end of the fourth week,  the development of the language begins with a somewhat triangular medial elevation on the floor of the primitive pharynx, just rostral to the lingual blind hole, called the medial tip of the tongue; represents the first indication of the development of this organ.

Abnormalities of the tongue therefore also project to the fourth week, although rare except cracking and hypertrophy of lingual papillae that are characteristic of children with Down syndrome.

The alterations that can occur are:

  • Lingual frenulum: The frenulum is frequently constitute a pathological element, which is characterized by a strong cord, which starts on the underside of the tongue; in the vicinity of its apical end, runs through the middle third, turns forward, and inserted in the midline of the mucosa of the floor of the mouth, unlike the tongue tie since it not only involves setting the language also interincisivo lower diastema.
  • Ankyloglossia or tongue tied: In a malformation in its overall shape is due to the binding of the tongue to the floor of the mouth, which is the exception. Is rare (1 per 10,000 births) although more frequent in part, in which the language has a very short or inserted too close to the tip lingual frenulum. It is accompanied by disorders of lactation and dyslalias that may go unnoticed for a long time and in later ages, adaptability and difficulties in retaining Prostate thesis . Usually not definitely affects speech, except for cases of total Ankyloglossia in which may be indicated frenilectomia
  • Bifida or cleft tongue: It is a rare, apparently as a result of lack of alteration fusion of the lateral halves of the body. Partial forked tongue is more common and is manifested by a deep groove on the midline of the dorsal surface of the tongue. Has little clinical significance, except for the possibility of accumulation of residues of food at the base of the slot and development of microorganisms that cause irritation.
  • Lingual thyroid: an injury is linked to the lingual development, consistent embryonic origin in a failure of migration with an incomplete thyroid primordium neck descent. Clinically the lesion is nodular and lobulated, covered by normal mucosa, a posterior position and the lingual base. It is more common in the sex female ..
  • Thyroglossal duct cyst: cysts and fistulas of the thyroglossal duct constitute a congenital condition developed on the persistence of embryological epithelial rests in the path of the thyroid gland, which follows from its appearance in the pharyngeal floor during the third week of life to get in the sixth to final anatomical situation. This route, called thyroglossal duct His or Bochdalek, is obliterated and reabsorbed from the seventh to eighth week of intrauterine life.
  • Lingual thyroid nodule: A lingual thyroid nodule is a rare anomaly characterized by the development of a mass of thyroid tissue in the middle back of the back of the lengua.Embriológicamente, primitive sketch of the thyroid gland originates at the site of the blind hole and migrates bottom along the thyroglossal tract to its final destination in the anterior neck sense.
  • Congenital macroglossia: The macroglosia designates a condition where the tongue at rest protrudes beyond the alveolar ridge. The language is a structure important functions vital as swallowing, phonation and respiration . Participates in the process of development and craniofacial growth. Macroglossia may cause dentomusculoskeletal deformities, create problems in chewing, speech and handling of the airway and instability of orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery. The knowledge of the signs and symptoms of macroglossia and their difference with macroglossia relative or pseudomacroglosia help identify those patients who can be intervened on time with a procedure surgical or nonsurgical as appropriate, in order to improve their function , aesthetics and ensure the stability of treatment.
  • Microglossia or hypoglosia: is an abnormally small tongue is extremely rare and usually associated with micrognathia (decreased jaw development and disappearance of the sobresaliencia chin) and defects members (Hanbart syndrome).
  • Fissured or scrotal tongue: Also known as scrotal tongue or plicatta. It is an acquired condition, though there are familial cases; It affects between 5-7% of the population is rare in children, but increases with age; is in both sexes equally and is often associated with geographic tongue. For cracks and grooves can be superficial or deep, horizontal or vertical. It is associated with Down syndrome, Cowden and Melkersson-Rosenthal; the latter is macroquelia by granulomatous cheilitis, fissured or scrotal tongue and facial palsy. It has the following variants: foliácea, cerebriforme, scrotal and transverse. Usually asymptomatic or painful, if presented in its furrows accumulation of food debris and contamination by fungi and bacteria that may cause inflammation and pain. Treatment is symptomatic and requires hygiene , antifungal, if superimposed infection by Candida and psychotherapy .
  • Toothed Language: The language is a traumatic toothed tongue, impressions of the teeth in the lingual edges occur due to macroglosias, bruxism, excessive tooth contact of the teeth with his tongue. Not important and only if that bothers and the patient being aware of it, discharge plates are placed to avoid the traumatic effect.
  • Glossoptosis:  Is the fall of the tongue toward the pharynx; used to be accompanied by other oral malformations and create serious respiratory difficulties.
  •  Alterations Halibut: Unilateral paralysis of the tongue. It may have paralysis of the tongue hypoglossal nerve injury. The paralysis of the tongue direct injuries are relatively common in times of war , civil life because of accidents or consequence of cancer resections.
  • ·Bilateral paralysis of the tongue.
  •  Bilateral paralysis of the tongue is due to injury of the neuron peripheral, there is a degeneration, muscle atrophy and fibrillary contractions. In exchange , lesions in the central neuron missing these three characteristics.   


Around the end of the fourth week, the development of the tongue begins with a medial elevation a little triangular appear in the primitive, tightly rostral pharynx’s floor to the lingual knockout, the tongue’s named medial yolk; Represent the first indication of the development of this organ.
The abnormalities of the tongue consequently project also at the end of the fourth week, although they are rare with the exception of the cracking and hypertrophy of lingual papillas that characteristics belong to children with Down’s syndrome.